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Water Supply

This page describes the water supply system in Bombay in 1995. There are separate pages on the history of water supply and future projects.

Now linked by The Utility Connection.

Water Supply

The water supply to Bombay from various sources is about 563 million gallons per day (MGD). The monsoon precipitation is collected in six lakes and supplied to the city through the year. 460 MGD are treated at the Bhandup Water Treatment Plant, the largest in Asia. The BMC manages to supply between 70 and 75% of the city's water needs.

Normal Lake Levels and Supply

The lakes and their normal levels at the end of the monsoon, as well as the amount of water supplied to the city per day, are listed below.
Lake Level Supply
  (m) (MGD)
Bhatsa 122.36 235
Upper Vaitarna 603.50 140
Modak Sagar (lower Vaitarna) 163.15 100
Tansa 128.63 90
Vihar 80.42 -
Tulsi 139.17 -


The water distribution system in Bombay is about 100 years old. Water is brought into the city from the lakes after treatment, and stored in 23 service reservoirs. Since two of the major sources, Tansa and Lower Vaitarna, are at a higher level than the city, not much power is required to pump the water.

The service reservoirs are mainly situated on hills. Some of them are located at Malabar Hill, Worli Hill, Raoli, Pali Hill, Malad, Powai and Bhandup. Timings of water supply to different parts of the city vary between 2 and 5 hours.


Currently the BMC earns about Rs. 4.5 billion (450 crores) a year through water charges and levies. Water production costs Rs. 24 per 10,000 litres. The BMC charges Rs. 6 for 10,000 litres for domestic consumption, and has a system of cross-subsidy by charging Rs. 150 for 10,000 litres for industrial and commercial users.

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